Outdoor air pollution tied to millions of preterm births

Scientists have published a major study that links outdoor air pollution with 2.7 million preterm births per year.
Credit: © jzehnder / Fotolia

Scientists have published a major study which links outdoor air pollution with 2.7 million preterm births per year.

The study, which was led by a team from The Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) at the University of York, found that in 2010, about 2.7 million preterm births globally — or 18 per cent of all preterm births — were associated with outdoor exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5).

PM2.5 is especially harmful to human health, as it can penetrate deep inside the lungs.

Results suggest that addressing major sources of PM2.5 – from diesel vehicles, to agricultural waste-burning, could save babies’ lives and improve health outcomes.

When a baby is born preterm (at less than 37 weeks of gestation), there is an increased risk of death or long-term physical and neurological disabilities.

In 2010, an estimated 14.9 million births were preterm — about 4-5 per cent of the total in some European countries, but up to 15-18 per cent in some African and South Asian countries. Scientists say the human and economic costs are enormous.

There are many risk factors for preterm birth — from the mother’s age, to illness, to poverty and other social factors. Recent research has suggested that exposure to air pollution could also be a risk factor.

A new study published in the journal Environment International for the first time quantifies the global impact by combining data about air pollution in different countries with knowledge about how exposure to different levels of air pollution is associated with preterm birth rates.

“This study highlights that air pollution may not just harm people who are breathing the air directly — it may also seriously affect a baby in its mother’s womb,” said Chris Malley, a researcher in SEI’s York Centre, at the University of York, and lead author of the study.

“Preterm births associated with this exposure not only contribute to infant mortality, but can have life-long health effects in survivors.”

“This study adds an important new consideration in measuring the health burden of air pollution and the benefits of mitigation measures,” he said.

The largest contribution to global PM2.5-associated preterm births was from South Asia and East Asia, which together contributed about 75 per cent of the global total.

India alone accounted for about one million of the total 2.7 million global estimate, and China for about another 500,000. Western sub-Saharan Africa and the North Africa/Middle East region also had particularly high numbers, with exposures in these regions having a large contribution from desert dust.

“There is uncertainty in these estimates because the concentration-response function we used is based mainly on studies in the United States and Europe,” Malley said.

“Not only don’t we know whether the relationship is the same at much higher concentrations, such as those found in some Indian or Chinese cities, but the prevalence of other risk factors also varies considerably.

“Expectant mothers in many places are also exposed to high levels of indoor pollution from cooking smoke. Resolving these uncertainties will require more studies in these countries and regions.”

“To reduce the PM2.5 problem, you need to control many different sources, but in many developing countries, certain emission sources dominate,” said Johan C.I. Kuylenstierna, co-author of the study, SEI’s Policy Director.

“This includes emissions from cooking with biomass fuels (which is also associated with very harmful indoor pollution), diesel vehicles and other transport, and particles emitted when agricultural residues are burned in fields.”

“In a city, maybe only half the pollution comes from sources within the city itself — the rest will be transported there by the wind from other regions or even other countries. That means that often regional cooperation is needed to solve the problem.,” Kuylenstierna added.

“Our colleagues from countries such as Ghana, Peru, Nigeria and Bangladesh have highlighted the importance of air pollution impacts on health as a motivation for reducing emissions,” Kuylenstierna added. “Knowing that reducing outdoor air pollution could help reduce preterm births provides a compelling new reason to invest in mitigation measures.”


Source: sciencedaily.com

Newmont committed to the health and welfare of local communities


Newmont Ghana says it is committed to transparently engaging and partnering with local communities to improve lives and mitigate impacts associated with its operations.

In line with the Company’s purpose to create value and improve lives through sustainable and responsible mining, Newmont welcomes all well-intentioned input to enhance mining’s benefits to local communities.

Paul Sowley, Newmont Ghana’s Senior Director for Sustainability and External Relations, in response to allegations in certain media outlets based on reports developed by non-governmental organizations (NGOs), WACAM and Ford Foundation says “Protecting and promoting the health and welfare of our employees and local communities is a top priority for us.

“We are currently studying the accuracy of the reports and will provide further information once we complete the review,” said Mr. Sowley. “Our review will include following up with the reports’ authors to better understand their data collection, analysis and assessment methods, which seem to lack the scientific rigour to support their conclusions.”

Impact mitigation
Newmont Ghana’s mitigation programmes in Ahafo, namely the Agricultural Improvement and Land Access Programme, Vulnerable Peoples’ Programme and Skills Development Improvement Programme, have supported more than 10,000 people.

In addition, the Company has installed new wells, monitored ground water supplies, improved sanitation and worked closely with local communities on monitoring and protecting water quality.

In addition, the Newmont Ahafo Development Foundation which has accrued more than Gh¢54.2million, is positively enhancing lives with the award of over 8,000 scholarships, 100 infrastructure projects (including schools, libraries, health facilities and potable water projects). The Foundation also has given out micro-credit support to approximately 1,500 beneficiaries, most of them women.

Gender mainstreaming
Newmont has undertaken deliberate efforts to empower women in all spheres of development. From its inception, the Ahafo mine instituted a gender mainstreaming policy to guide all social development interventions.

In addition to the formation of a Women Consultative Committee, which has had tremendous impact on women in the 10 host communities, there has been an appreciable level of inclusion of women in the local economy.

It is worthy to note that more than 40 percent of the scholarships and 98 percent of the micro-credit beneficiaries have been women.

Newmont recognizes that there remain opportunities to improve lives and mitigate impacts. Through ongoing, transparent and responsible partnership with local communities, the company will help create value and improve lives through sustainable and responsible mining.


Source: modernghana.com

Ghana’s Open-Defecation Democracy Unbelievably Disgusting!


In this day and age many Ghanaian children study under trees where they are constantly exposed to the elements.

Many a child who is just fortunate to study in brick-and-mortar classrooms does so in deathtrap.

Those six unfortunate children who died recently, those several others who unfortunately died yesteryear, just yesterday, all did so—sadly—in what seemed like rejected ectopic pregnancies of cold deathtraps and sweltering slave ships that also pass for authentic brick-and-mortar classrooms.

Yet we know who the slimy perpetrators of these heinous crimes are, these shameless and hypocritical moirologists called politicians.

Leadership crises, gross mismanagement of the public purse, institutional corruption, and political wickedness are the grand ghost authors of the mournful, harmful obituaries of these innocent children.

These wicked politicians have taken to writing the obituaries of innocent Ghanaian children even before they are born, burying the future of these children in the ashes of bitterness.

And yet these shameless, wicked politicians build strings of castles and mansions to the tune of tens of millions of dollars—for themselves.

And yet these shameless, wicked politicians buy a fleet of expensive cars for themselves.

They even steal some of these expensive for their private use.

Yes, the taxpayer’s money, that is it—the secret to the material success of political mortician.

The wicked politician’s growing fat at the expense of the taxpayer. This is to say, the taxpayer’s hard-earned money foots the humongous bills of his children’s premature and preventable deaths, such as happened in the case of the six children—their angelic souls should rest in peace rather than in pieces—and others’ orchestrated obituaries at the hands of the politician, and the like.

The wicked politician is indeed a bloodsucker, a scheming leech with an effective scolex. The alleged discerning taxpayer, we are consistently told, knows the politician inside out and yet he goes all the way to vote the same politician into office—year in, year out.

For instance, maintenance cost for the fleet of cars kept at the presidency and the fuel for this fleet of cars, Oh Ghana, are borne by the poor hardworking taxpayer.

While the taxpayer grows anorexic on account of his political immaturity and ignorance, while expectant mothers cry out for medications and beds, while the nation’s networks of rutty and rusty and unmotorable roads continue to remain highly accessible burial grounds for citizens, while open defecation elevates Ghana to the seventh dirtiest country on the planet, while unemployment and institutional corruption gnaw at the soul of the nation, these wicked sybaritic politicians continue to live extravagantly while feeding the citizenry on fact lies.

In fact the taxpayer is totally lost in the misty dustiness of abject ignorance. The wicked politician, on the other hand, is a dead wood in the thick of absolute coldness and, as well, floating in the limbo of stupidity and, once again, this, as far as his lack of scientific and technocratic grasp of the intricacies of nation-building building is concerned.

Why won’t both then be caught up in the quagmire of accelerated arrested development? The taxpayer is afraid of, and thus stands in absolute awe of the redoubtable political superstition built around the all-powerful politician, the ruling class.

Now, we are being told that the descendants of those who vigorously yet avowedly resisted or campaigned against independence for the Gold Coast are going to spend millions to celebrate Ghana’s sixtieth anniversary.

The Ghana@60 logo which Akufo-Addo unveiled recently is being linked to another shameful act of international plagiarism—allegedly, and this, coming after the infamous international plagiarism vis-à-vis his inaugural speech.

Scheming, clueless Akufo-Addo says “corporate Ghana in particular will provide the funds for the anniversary.”

Oh yes, the man is not clueless after all. He actually knows what he is doing.

Payback time to party loyalists and financiers, we guess! The National Democratic Party (NDC) did it. Vicious circle! Politics of equalization! And so the New Patriotic Party must also do it.

And when two elephants fight, the grass-taxpayer suffers dearly and bears the brunt of the elephantine tussle.

Why corporate Ghana in particular?
What terms define this quid pro quo? In other words what does corporate Ghana stand to gain?

Which specific entities within “corporate Ghana” are going to foot the bill for the anniversary?

Are their names going to be made accessible to the public?

And the issue of conflict of interest: Are these entities affiliated with the New Patriotic Party (NPP) in any way?

Did they contribute to Akufo-Addo’s campaign?

Will the government award them sole-source or no-bid contracts in exchange for footing the bill for the anniversary?

Transparency and accountability and probity should guide this controversial decision of asking “corporate Ghana” to provide the funds for the anniversary.

For this is not the time to turn our fragile open-defecation democracy into or entrench the politics of the belly, prebendalism, crony capitalism, and kleptomaniacal corruption.

Do we know that in our beloved country, as in hell, corporate Ghana is the insensitive politician’s partner-in-crime, an underground economy that deals in and warehouses reprobate public corruptocrats, political criminals and murderous thieves?

In Ghana more particularly, thus, the Orwellian doublespeak of the political or ruling class threatens to contaminate the moral fabric of society, for better or for worse.

You look up, when the politician decrees otherwise. Such is the trendy character of political realism in Ghanaian politics.

Property-owning democracy for social democracy!
Social democracy for property-owning democracy!
Political thieves and criminals are celebrities and saints and angels.

Celebrities and saints and criminals are political thieves and criminals.

In Ghanaian politics the end always justifies the means.

In Ghanaian politics correlation does always imply causation.

Mahama for Akufo-Addo.
Akufo-Addo for Mahama.
The same nauseating local stench, nothing changes.
Though the political and ideological colors are in plain white and black, there exist no nuances between our pied open-democracy, there exist no subtleties in the stale sandwich we call schadenfreude duopoly.

The Ghanaian politician who feels he is invisible and untouchable and redoubtable, and is over the moon so long as he succeeds in wrecking havoc on his country, is also an epitome of mediocrity, stupidity and shame, and a disgrace to human intelligence.

The Ghanaian politician is undeserving of human society, a threat to human civilization and moral decency, and thus he must be banished from any civilized society. His political mind falls outside the responsible profile of moral quantum, a fixture of his mental landscape antithetical to the progressive profile of transparency, accountability and probity.

The Ghanaian politician is therefore an endangered species that must be forced into extinction, into perpetual retirement, just so he will no longer pose a threat to himself and his society.

The national flag:
He has reduced “green” to a desert.
He has turned “yellow,” the gold, to foreign interests on the cheap.

He has turned “the black star” over to internal colonialism and economic slavery.

He has turned “red” into tears of blood for those citizens perpetually trapped in a vicious circle of social-economic hardship.

The national flag he has turned into a used toilet paper!

We shall return with Part 2, the concluding segment.

Ghanaweb. “Ghana@60 Celebration To Cost GHC20m.” February 10, 2016.


Source: modernghana.com

Govt asked to establish surveillance system to track diseases

Dr Ebenezer Appiah-Denkyira, the Director General of Ghana Health  Picture: Maxwell Ocloo

Dr Ebenezer Appiah-Denkyira, the Director General of Ghana Health Picture: Maxwell Ocloo


By: Charles Andoh & Esther Omoha

A team of medical experts from the World Health Organisation (WHO) has called on the government to commit resources towards the establishment of an anti-microbiology surveillance system to track diseases that posed danger to life.

According to the Joint External Evaluation (GEE) team of the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) Regional Office for Africa (AFRO), the surveillance system would enable the government to track an outbreak within the shortest time possible.

The head of the team, Dr Ambrose Talisuna, was speaking to the Daily Graphic in an interview at the end of a one-week evaluation workshop in Accra.

The validation exercise was to put out a scorecard to assess Ghana’s capacity and level of preparedness to respond to disease outbreak in the country and the sub-region.


Dr Talisuna indicated that the sub-region was interrelated in various areas and that failure by governments, including Ghana to prepare adequately for any disease situation could endanger the health of citizens.

He also called for support from development partners to contain the outbreak of diseases within the sub-region.

“The outbreak of Ebola and its consequences on the region is a lesson for everyone to see, and the time has come for governments to be committed towards fighting these outbreaks and health risks,” Dr Talisuna said.


Dr Talisuna commended Ghana for her level of preparedness in containing the spread of diseases. Among the areas assessed by the team were epidemiology training and immunisation outreach programmes which were constantly carried out across the country.

“The team had a transparent assessment of Ghana’s health sector and I believe the country is doing so well, but there is the need to do more,” he added.

According to him, the team would be coming back to the country towards the end of the year to assist in developing a robust action plan for the health sector.

The team of experts comprised 10 personnel, including veterinary and epidemiology specialists draw from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), German Development Corporation (GIZ) and Norwegian Institute of Public Health (NIPH).


The Director-General (DG) of the Ghana Health Service (GHS), Dr Ebenezer Appiah-Denkyira, expressed appreciation to the team for the assessment done on Ghana’s health sector.

He stated that the programme provided opportunity for knowledge sharing between the experts and representatives from the GHS.

Dr Appiah-Denkyira indicated that the major challenge facing the sector was the lack of funds.

“But there is the need for transparency in order to attract the needed resources,” he emphasised.

On immunisation, the Director-General stated that there was the need for specific identification numbers for newborns in order to track them to ensure that they were immunised adequately and on time.


Source: graphic.com.gh

1,300 cartons of unwholesome tilapia destroyed at Kpone

The fish being gathered for destruction at the Kpone Landfill site.


By: Benjamin Glover


Large quantities of unwholesome tilapia were yesterday destroyed at the Kpone dumping site in Tema.The 1,300 cartons of frozen tilapia, each weighing 10 kilograms, were impounded at the Trust Link Cold Store by a team led by the National Coordinator of the Fisheries Enforcement Unit (FEU), Capt. Emmanuel Kwafo.

Other members were personnel from the Fisheries Commission, Marine Police and the Food and Drugs Authority.

They later supervised the destruction of the fish at the Kpone dumping site after obtaining a court order from the Tema High Court.


The consignment, said to have been imported into the country by Mr Zhang Ming, a Chinese, allegedly bore no dates of manufacture and expiration or country of origin. Mr Ming, who was arrested, has since been granted police enquiry bail.


Speaking to the Daily Graphic, the Head of Monitoring, Control and Surveillance Fisheries Commission, Mr Godfrey Baidoo-Tsibu, said prior to the destruction of the fish, a test conducted by the FDA on samples of the tilapia found them to be unwholesome.

According to him, per section 132 (2) of the Public Health Act,  Act 851 of 2012, the authorities had to dispose of the consignment.


Mr Baidoo-Tsibu said after having gone through the necessary legal requirements, the unwholesome fish were carted to the Kpone dumping site and under the supervision of  the Chief Supervisor at the Tema Metropolitan Assembly, Mr Percy Azanlerigu, the fish were destroyed.

He explained that the exercise by the team formed part of efforts to fight illegal importation and sale of tilapia in the country.


Source: graphic.com.gh

Arrest people practising open defecation – Environmental Officer







The Municipal Environmental Health Unit of the Savelugu/Nanton Municpal Assembly (S/NM) is to begin arresting residents, who practise open defaecation (OD) within the Municipality.

Mr Kombian Duut, S/NM Environmental Health Officer, who announced this, said it was to deter residents from practising OD to improve hygiene in the communities within the Municipality.

Mr Duut said already a resident was released on bail after being arrested for practising OD in the Municipality.

He was speaking at a forum organised by the Ghana Anti-Corruption Coalition (GACC) and Centre for Democratic Development-Ghana (CDD-Ghana) at Savelugu to discuss issues of health and sanitation as captured in the 2016 Open Defaecation free (ODF) League Table.

The forum, facilitated by the Savannah Integrated Rural Development Aid (SIRDA), formed part of the “I Am Aware” project being implemented by GACC and CDD-Ghana.

It was attended by officials from S/NM, residents and representatives of some civil society organisations.

The ‘I Am Aware’ project is an online platform where data on public service delivery in sectors including health, education, sanitation, water and security are published for all to access and use for evidence-based advocacy.

Mr Duut said OD was the major health problem in the Municipality as many houses did not have toilet facilities forcing residents to practice OD.

According to the 2016 ODF League Table, S/NM placed 15 in the Northern Region with 10 of its communities declared as ODF or having access to toilet facilities.

Mr Duut urged landlords to make provision for toilet facilities in their property to stop OD in the municipality.

Alhaji Mohammed Shaibu, S/NM Planning Officer urged residents to embrace the community-led total sanitation strategy to construct their own toilets to improve hygiene in their communities to avoid diseases.

Some community members, who took part in the discussions, appealed to S/NM to support households with subsidies to construct household toilets since they could not afford the cost of constructing the facility.

Others expressed need for sanitary inspectors to be deployed to communities to educate residents on OD as well as sanction those flouting rules on environmental sanitation.

Hajia Alima Sagito Saeed, Executive Director of SIRDA said efforts would be made to continue to mobilise residents to understand the issues as regards the I Am Aware project to promote accountability.


Source: ghanabusinessnews.com

Noguchi Research Meeting Restarts …Malaria and Bursuli Ulcers Lead Scientific Spotlight


By: Richard Lee

Leading Ghanaian and European researchers have held a two-day meeting at the Noguchi Memorial Institute on the campus of the University of Ghana, on Monday, to review the latest clinical trials and studies of West African diseases.

Sponsored principally by the Volkswagen Foundation of Germany, the two-day meeting was kicked off by Professor Kwadwo Ansah Koram.

Leading the discussion was Bursuli Ulcers (BU), a very disfiguring skin condition, if not treated early.

BU is caused by bacteria in the water supplies, and many patients suffering from BU live in the Ga West District in the Greater Accra Region.

Scientists still do not know how the bacteria are transmitted from water to the sufferers, but they discussed several new treatment options.

In the not too distant past, BU patients needed to undergo a painful surgery and difficult skin graft to repair the damage.

In more recent years, doctors found that two antibiotic drugs, Rifampicin and Streptomycin, taken for eight weeks can be effective.

However, roughly 30% of patients suffer from serious side effects from these two drugs.

Fortunately, a fairly new treatment, using heated bandages to draw out the bacteria, and heal the wound has shown fantastic results.

The new therapy is almost 100% effective, if done correctly. The therapy needs no medicines or even electricity to work.

It is easy to apply and the heated bandage therapy works especially well for cases caught early and for children who can be allowed to run around, instead of sitting in a health care clinic bed all day.

The researchers stated that studies using Tuberculosis medicines as a possible vaccine against BU are being carried out, but to date, no existing drug has shown much promise to prevent BU.

On Tuesday, the scientists will review the latest in Malaria research, as well as several non-communicable diseases.

Since its founding in 1979, the Noguchi Institute has been at the cutting edge of malaria research.  Speaking to the media, Professor Kwadwo Ansah Koram emphasized the importance of the Noguchi research efforts.

He reminded the media that it often takes years for clinic research to effect pubic life in Ghana, stating for example that after conducting serious scientific work on the positive value of mosquito nets over beds, it still took almost ten years for bedding nets to gain wide spread public acceptance and usage.

To close the Conference, there will be a debate- “Is Ghana Ready for the Outbreak of Any Deadly Disease?”

The debate will be judged by Professor David Ofori-Adjei, Dr. Sena Afua Dei-Tutu and Dr. Kyei Faried.

Let’s hope that the answer is yes, and pray that we never need to find out for sure.


Source: modernghana.com

Two yellow fever cases detected in Jirapa District







The Jirapa District Health Directorate detected one suspected measles and two yellow fever cases last year.

Specimen from the patients had been sent to Accra for testing and results yet to be received, Madam Phoebe Balagumyetime, the Jirapa District Director of Health Services, said at the 2016 annual performance review meeting.

She announced that during the period, the Neisseria Meningitides Sero group W135, which is responsible for epidemics in Ghana, re-emerged in the first half of the year but because of mass vaccination with the conjugate vaccine, the burden had reduced.

Madam Balagumyetime said the district recorded 308 suspected cases of the disease but 97 were confirmed adding that mass vaccination campaign was carried out which resulted in the reduction of the cases.

The most affected age group was between two to 29 years.

Madam Balagumyetime appealed to private health providers to provide reports on all services rendered to the people in the communities to the District Health Directorate to appraise its performance.

“The health sector requires that all service providers, both private and public, report on services provided and review meetings organised accordingly,” she said.


Source: ghanabusinessnews.com

Food Vendors and the Public Health Act


How many of us are aware that it’s an offence to sell food to the public from filthy environment?

Well, our Public Health Act [Act 851] of 2012 is very clear on this: Part Five, section 51 and 52 are explicit on how offensive it is to offer unwholesome food for sale, or sell food to the public from filthy environment.

But what do we see? Many of our food vendors sell food to the public from filthy environment. They usually carry out this act on the edges of our drains/gutters. Do we even need to sell foods on the edges of our opened drains/gutters? I guess not.

In an attempt to hide their unhygienic act of selling on the edges of filthy gutters/drains, some have devised a strange mechanism of covering portions of the gutters/drains with woods. They do this to prevent customers from seeing the nature of the environment they are buying from.

What some of these vendors have forgotten is about the fact that it’s always hard to resist the stench that comes along with filthy gutters/drains. Obviously the to and fro movement of houseflies between the drains/gutters and the food being sold cannot be prevented by the wooden structure.

You might previously been checking only personal hygiene aspect of the food vendor, but try as much as possible to consider the environment you are buying foods from as well. Public Health knowledge makes us understand that, for most communicable/diarrhoea diseases [including food borne diseases] to occur, there should be a favourable relationship between; agent, host and environment. Houseflies play an important role in this relationship, in most cases, serving as carriers of the disease causing agent [pathogen].

Naturally, flies love the stench as compared to the aroma of foods, but they are always going to try and make contact with the ready-to-eat food anyway.

Reject foods from filthy environment. Eat healthy foods.

Live a Preventive Health Life!
#PreventiveHealth #HealthPromotion #GlobalGoal3
Author: Gbolu Samson
Founder, PHAN-Ghana


Source: mordenghana.com

Importer Recalls Blue Jeans Energy Drink

Blue Jeans Energy Drink

By: Melvin Tarlue

Budget Cash and Carry has ordered the recall of all 250ml Blue Jeans Energy Drink from the market.

The order, which is in compliance with a directive by the Food and Drug Authority (FDA), follows social media reports that the 250ml cans energy drink with Santa Claus and a wrap-around sticker labels imported into the country during the Christmas season in December 2016 by Budget Cash and Carry were fake and poisonous.

Budget Cash and Carry, importer of the Blue Jeans Energy Drink, in compliance with the FDA’s directive, therefore urged all distributors of Blue Jeans Energy Drink in Ghana to return all the said products.

The recall does not include the 330ml Blue Jeans Energy Drink, which has been on sale in the country since 1996.

Addressing the media on Monday in Accra, a member of the legal team of Budget Cash and Carry, George Eshun, disclosed that the contents in the 250ml cans in question were not fake or poisonous as speculated in the social media.

“As a very responsible corporate citizen, we have no intention whatsoever or any motivation to import and distribute inferior products and place our renowned brand on it.”

According to him, “A production challenge regarding the supply of special cans (250ml) with features for the yuletide resulted in a decision which unfortunately has not been accepted by some section of the public in spite of all efforts made to address the problem through public announcements.”

Lawyer Eshun indicated that “we want to state emphatically that we Budget Cash and Carry imported the Blue Jeans Energy Drink in the 250ml cans with the wrap-around for the reasons stated above. The content of the cans is Blue Jeans Energy Drink, and it is safe and of good quality. It is not a fake product as the video seems to suggest.”

“We however wish to assure the public that in view of the public anxiety and the general good of the business environment, we will comply with the directive of the FDA in all investigations it may further wish to conduct.”

“We hereby recall all Blue Jeans Energy Drink, particularly the 250ml cans and call on all our distributors to return them to our warehouse.”


Source: mordenghana.com